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Totem of Deer in Turkic peoples

In the animistic representations of ancient man every tree endowed with a soul. In general, the forest was embodied in a single image of the deity – the lord of the forest. It appeared to be a zoomorphic figures, including a special position occupied elk or deer. It is believed that during the Holocene, these animals have become the main object of hunting Neolithic tribes in the vast expanses of the taiga zone of Eurasia.

The cult of elk and deer existed among many hunting tribes already in the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Some researchers believe that in the folklore of different ethnic inhabitants of these forests were completely interchangeable. It can be considered a reflection of surviving images of moose in cave paintings, petroglyphs, deer stones on the North- East Asia, Siberia, the Urals and Northern Europe.

Ancient hunters still in the Mesolithic turned to the sky, the sun and the stars that helped them navigate during the long pursuit of deer. In some cultures cult-mythological significance of increased elk and deer took place, represented as a constellation. The main constellation in their religious beliefs associated with the deer, from which all the animals were born.

Cult of deer is present in the art of different ethnic groups of Eurasia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages is an echo of the common religious beliefs that could have arisen even in the Mesolithic. The worship of the heavenly deer is widespread archaic stage.[1]

Apparently, the old man was struck by similarity antlers with the branches of the tree that was the transfer of image of the world tree on the divine deer. Perhaps in view of the ancient taiga men, in the images of deer and elk embodied taiga and world tree of life. Therefore, worship of the world tree, elk and deer are often intertwined in one cult.

This representation of the relationship of mythological characters deer and tree is present in the Evens in the Legend of the transformation of the world tree branches in the antlers. Referred to the gods in the symbolism of the sign, this animal Evens regarded as a sacred tree[2].

In the solar myth of Yakuts present episode a fight elk with each other and the images of three elk, hills and trees. Elks are symbols of the three zones of the cosmos. The first elk was in the clouds – the upper world. The second was in water-the lower world. The third elk was on the hill – the middle world, where people live. He was the winner, but broke a tree branch, thereby violated some balance by loosening the upper zone and the lower giving force.

Big Dipper is called “Arangas Sulus” (Line of stars), Ursa Minor-“Tongus arangas Sulus” (Evenks line of stars). Elk is in the night sky meant the constellation Orion-“Tayahtah Sulus” (elk star). The World Tree (elk) passed through Orion, ie world axis is along the Milky Way (the geomagnetic equator).[3]

It evens unlike the Yakuts despite the close proximit elk are not associated with the constellation of Orion, and with the North Star. Milky Way-“Hallan siige” (heavenly seam) inYakut in a solar myth called the road along which son of heaven (Hallan Uola) was chasing a deer.

This story circulated among different peoples. In South Siberian Turkic in a solar myth, Orion is seen as a three deers chased by a hunter. Perhaps, on the mythological level, reindeer and elk could impersonate both the mountains and the forest or mountains covered with forest[4].

It is assumed that in such places, namely, in the mountains, forested, the ancestors of the Turkic peoples, before the domestication of the horse, when they were engaged in hunting , fishing and gathering in their lives reindeer was more significant object on the hunt.

Legends of divine celestial deer (tangara tabalara) preserved in the folklore of the Yakuts, as a sacrificial and wild animals, which are reflected in their worship that existed in the era of the Scythian-Saks time.[5]

In olonkho “Er Sogotokh” about reindeer said: “With regard to his woods , he hides … reindeer belonging only to God” In folklore remains the expression, “Togus Hallan yuner muostara” (nine horns -heaven,whom they pray), ie horns are both branches of the tree.

They extend into the upper world, forming tiers of heaven, which inhabited the deity. Apparently, the ancient people worshiped and celebrated rituals dedicated heavenly deer or elk, embodies the World Tree-Cosmos.[6]

As the tree, branch and deer were one archetype, words for deer and a branch in the Indo-Iranian languages ​​sound similar: kha (Sanskrit), Saka (Persish) Sagas (Osetin)-deer and branch. Such similarities can be explained by the fact that in the fairly early period of these peoples the name of deer was taboo[7]. Euphemistically saka established itself among the Scythians to refer to a male deer, as in many Iranian languages ​​to refer to the terms of deer exist at the root gav, literally meaning cow in Avestan – gavasna, in Farsi-gav, in Pahlavi-gavazn, in Dari-gavazn, in Ossetian-gvaz[8].

In Turkic languages ​​, as opposed to Indo-Iranian, the deer is called differently: geyik (Turkish), suun (Turkmen), bugu (Kyrgyz, Uighurs), iwi (Tuvin), Bolan (Tatars), taba (Yakut), etc. As for the name deer- taba in Yakuts, there is a mechanical transfer from Turkic tebe (deve, töö)-Camel, and the name of the camel in the Yakut-tebien is a borrowing from Mongolian temegen. Moose in Yakuts – tayah corresponds to the Turkic taylak -Camel two years old[9].

The root “sah” in word “sahsagar” in Yakut language (branched, densely overgrown branches, shaggy) compares with the Iranian “saka”-branch, a deer, one can assume that the ancestors of the Yakuts could call a deer like root as the word which is preserved in the name of god Sah[10].

Perhaps the ancestors of the Yakuts in the ancient time the deer called Sakha (sah), and it could be one of the main totems, but later in time, the word is forgotten. It is assumed that the Yakuts have not kept the ancient name of a deer. This is probably due to the taboos for totem animals.

In the Yakut language is archaic proverb” Aar saarga aataammat aam”(by no means not spoken name)[11]

Sagly is the first part of the sag, as the author goes back to the Iranian name of the deer – the totem of ancient Saks, and the part “-ly” is affixed in the possession of the Turkic languages. In this case, Sagly means “having the deer”[12]

Khandagaity-mongol name of the area which translated from Mongolian means “having a moose”.The image of noble deer was a central figure in the Scythian-Siberian animal style. Turkic name of a deer, red deer goes back to a common root meaning of the deer in the early tradition proto-Turks ethnic tribes, and is derived from the verb syty- (Sugu-sunmak) to bring a gift , give, treat and originally meant “born (that brought) a gift, a sacrifice (the deity)”, ie, “Sacrificial animal.[13]

Often of totem animals shall commence its origins many tribes and clans. Over time, the totem animals took a seat next to the ancestors. Totem could not kill him, but on the other hand, in the rites of many people it killed and ate a solemn ritual feast on. Similarly, it was with his name, on the one hand, it can not be spoken out loud, on the other – it is assigned to the tribe, its individual members.[14]

In northern Yakut dedicated to the spirit of the animal is called “kuday” Tuvinians “kuuday” (castrated rideable reindeer, the original meaning-gray horse). Theon “Kuday” in languages ​​of South Siberian Turkic (Hakas, Teleuts, Altai, Shor, Kyrgyz and Kazakh) means “god” and is considered an Iranian: Huda (Budda)-the God.

Deer is a mediator between the worlds of gods and men. At the funeral ceremony was accompanied by a deer dead to the underworld, or the abode of the ancestors.

Therefore, when the funeral of murdered deer thus as it symbolized the transportation of the deceased into the world of the gods[15].

The use a deer as a vehicle to the other world is a long-forgotten custom of ancestors of the Yakuts. In the northern dialect of the Yakuts have the word “elik” (wild deer). In Central Yakutia is the word preserved in one of the names of spirits of rich forests Bayanayya – Elik Handagay.

Bayanay is spirit of the forest, the patron of hunters and rides on deer. His coat is sewn from the hide of a deer. It seems that the ancient cult of deer did not disappear completely, but continued to live in the Yakut folklore in the form of the spirit of the rich forest[16].

It is very interesting the totem of deer in the era of military democracy. Zoomorphic images of deities acquired a new quality, including worship of deer totem. Tribal leadership, for representation special status, adorned themselves relevant attributes. During the excavation of the Scythian burial mounds on the bodies were found buried in a variety of tattoos of fantastic animals, including deers. The ancient warriors adorned his body tattoo of a deer or elk.[17]

Warriors themselves in Yakutia olonkho often compared with the deer, and the warriors often take the shape of an animal. The archaic cult deer preserved in shamanism in northern Yakuts, in this image is the mother-animal is painted by yellow ocher or blood on the tambourine.

The ancient sorcerers to their external appearance imitated the gods and spirits. The attributes of a syncretic heavenly deer – bird depicted in rock art in the Middle Lena image shaman (sorcerer) with a tambourine and outspread wings, antlers on his head. Figure dated Early Iron Age.[18]

In southern Siberia, Tuva in clothes shaman (Kama) preserved deer parts. In the Scythian art is also present syncretic image, including a human, deer and birds as an echo of the archetype of the deer – bird – soul in olonkho said that maternal soul may be in the deer In ancient times the ancestors of the Turkic peoples living in the mountain taiga of Siberia.[19]

During the period of economic appropriating to horse domestication, when people are engaged in hunting, fishing and gathering, deer represent the most important object of the hunt. The cult of the deer-elk was significant it personified the taiga, and therefore specially dedicated deer in religious ideas, like the world tree, the liaison with the heavenly deities. Apparently, it can be assumed that the ancestors of the Yakuts like other peoples of Siberia and Central Asia in ancient times there was a cult of the deer a solar deity.[20]

In this case, the Buryat “Bucha” he raises , as well as Turkic “kün-sun”, from which there was Buryat “hon-hun” ( swan), to the Indo-Iranian basis, not taking into account that the “Bucha” has a more ancient Sayan- Altai ( Turkic and pre-Türkic) version of the “Buga”, referring to the languages ​​of the peoples of Siberia wild bull-deer ( deer, red deer ), which was considered a totemic ancestor of many ethnic groups, including the Buryat (bura-moose).

By the way, the name of the tribe Bulagat probably dates back to the Tuvan “bulan”-“moose”, which is also quite logical, given the name of a common Altai – Sayan ancestor of the Turkic- Mongol:Alan Hoo (according to our reconstruction the mother -Deer+swan kuu), or the progenitor of the royal family the Mongols of Genghis Khan: Goo Maral (swan+deer), whom he married a mythical ancestor of Borjigin: Borte Chino (Grey Wolf).

Regarding the Turkic “kun” (the sun) – the image of Indo-European origin, borrowed from Tohar language. The word is associated with proto-Toharic Käun – “Sun” researchers also relate ancient Turkic “Kün täŋri”-“the sun-god”twin formations of Tocharian texts Käun-ñäkte, kom-nikte,prevailing by adding the word “sun” and the second element ñkät-ñäkt-“god”. Probably, in the second half of I millennium BC.e, if not earlier, Tocharian religious beliefs associated with the worship of the Sun and the Moon, had an impact on the ancient Turks[21].

However Tochars identified by the ancestors of Turks, Tugyu and Usuns are themselves early Ural and Sayano -Altai roots, in particular ethnic ties to ancient Turkic- Mongol tribe Uriangkhai, one of the branches of which are Dagur (Daur), and the other – the ancestors modern Tuva-Tuha, (Toba) The name “Dagur” probably associated to the proto-Turkic “tag + ur”, ie “Mountain Uriangkhai”, which indicates their ancestral home-the Sayano- Altai. “Tohar” we can associated as “mountain goat” (arhar, tehe), or “mountain deer” (tag + chor), as well as “mountain goat + deer” (tech; Tuvinic.te + chor)[22].

A Turkic Kyun-hyun, in addition to Tocharian language may well adequate the first element of the Finno-Ugric names of the Ural- Altai „Hun + Goray“(Hungaria) – „ country of solar deers“ from which , in fact, take place the name „hungirat“ and „hongodor“, as well as metaentonim „choir“ , as the collective name of the Turkic- Mongols in Sayano – Altai region.

As for the double Tocharian“com-nikte “in relation to the ancient Turkic “Kyung –Tengri” this terminology may have distinct origins going back to the Proto-Ural. In any case, the relation Tengri (Tuvinic: Deer) with the Khanty-Mansi (Finno-ugric) god Hont-Torum difficult challenge, as the Scythian Targitai with the proto-Indo-European Tour-Thor[23].

The full name of the god of the Buryat: a bull Bucha-Noyon-baabay (“baabay”in Turko -Mongol languages ​​means “grandfather, father and ancestor.”)

Ethnonym Sayan is a “so-yon/chon” ie “People So” from which there was a name Sayan Mountains as a place-name, which arose from the ethnonym; the fundamental principle of this ethnonym is still the same totem deer, possibly in the form of “Sugan”-Doe[24].

On the mythological image of the sacred Deer-ancestor also associated Buryat-Mongolian “Sagan”-white as an ethno-political term for “white meat” as a sign of an aristocratic family (perhaps initially has a priestly origin as the Turkic word “ak”, denoting white color is also associated with “Sak (a)” and is the oldest kind of Turks Ak having a Finno-Ugric and Samoyed roots)

Thus, the question itself about whose race –Indoeuropean or autochthonous Sayan- Altai (Turkic, Mongolian, Finno-Ugric), is “much older”, it is unlawful in this case, since the ethnic and cultural roots of all these people back to such an early form of archaic beliefs and practices, as totems.[25]

Pre-Islamic religion in Kyrgyzs: Totemism is belief in the existence of a close link between any generic group and its totem – a certain kind of animal, even plants even rarer items or other natural phenomena.

Genus was named after his totem, for example Arcar-roebuck, or Bugu-doe, and believed that comes from common ancestors with him, is with him in kinship. Totem is not worshiped, but considered him “father” or “elder brother”, have been helping people of this kind. The latter, for its part, did not have to kill your totem cause him any harm, eating it.

Each had its own kind of sacred center, which is associated with the legend about the totemic ancestors and their children abandoned embryos, giving rise to new lives; totemic relics were kept here and perform various totemic rites. On the whole, was a kind of totemic ideological reflection of this kind due the natural environment, to realize the only clear communication while the form of consanguinity.

Totemism originated during wound tribal society where the main unit of society was born. The clan united group of blood relatives, related by common descent.

Remnants of the tribal totems can be considered prevailed until recently have faith in the Kyrgyz origin tribe Bugu from doe, or as they say, from “horny mother”. Researchers have long noticed that some names of Kyrgyz tribes come from the name of wildlife. The extremely curious that the Kyrgyz language Bugu-a buck or red deer.[26]

But the peoples from tribe Bugu his ancestress recognize a woman who was considered a “daughter of the deer.” Upon closer examination the tribal names of Kyrgyz we found that not only the names of many tribal divisions, but also several other tribes ethnonyms also goes back to the names of animals and birds. The tribes are Börü-wolf, Zhoru-hawk and Sarybagysh-red deer.

The names of Kyrgyz clans are widely presented similar elements. We present here only a part of ethnonyms: Kaman-boar (tribe Munduz), Kiyik Naiman-(Naiman tribe) Kiyik- generic name for all separately hoofed animals except pigs, Kuran-Naiman, Kuran- roebuck; Tyulkyu -Fox, in particular as totems were leopard, deer, wolf. Leopard and wolf often serve as positive epithets in Kyrgyz epic heroes. Persian author in Gardizi XI shows that the Kyrgyz were objects of worship, such as a cow, hedgehog, magpie and hawk.

Some remnants of the cult of animals we know and ethnographic materials. It is likely that the veneration of some animals as totems is also connected by the fact that among the names of the months in the Kyrgyz national calendar we find the same that ethnonyms, names of animals; Bugu-deer and Kuran-roebock and Teke-mountain goat and Kulzha-bighorn sheep.

In this case, these months could wear the sacred character. The festivities in honor of the totems have been accompanied by the offering of sacrifices. In this regard noteworthy presence in the Kyrgyz and other Turkic languages ​​the verb ” Bagyshta-dedicate, to bring a gift, sacrifice (hence Bagyshtoo-the dedication of the offering)

Like other tribes, the totem ancestor of Bugu- Doe was semi-animal and semi-human. She did not die like all people her body is not given burial. After the death of her, she is fantastic disappears. Doe protects the whole tribe, but her malevolent attitude can bring misfortune, death and even termination of the human race. (According Ch.Aitmatow symbolised of ecological catastrophe) Bugu was a symbol totem tribal repentance.

Members of this tribe consider themselves special origin, so arrogant attitude towards people of other tribes. Even the other tribes were treated with great respect not only to the Doe, but also to members of the tribe Bugu, considering them sacred.

Apparently with totemic representations was associated in the past Kyrgyz special relationship to mountain goats (Echki, Teke) bighorn sheep (Arcar, Kulca) and roe deer (Elik). All these separately – hoofed wild animals were known collectively as the Kiyik or Kayp. Kyrgyzs considered mountain goats as divine cattle. About how he has turned into a wild animal in the Kyrgyz legend exists.

Kyrgyz believed that meat of goat healthily and has purifying properties. Everyone had at least once a year to eat it to be cleansed of all sins. Therefore, when a hunter killed them brought mountain goat, other members of clan came to him for meat – a gift from hunting prey.

If the meat is not enough, drank the broth in which it was brewed. Kyrgyz also believed in the sacred property of mountain goat skins. So parents, especially those who often died children, sewed for baby coat of deer skins (Elik ton). In the south of Kyrgyzstan, used prayer rugs made ​​from the skins of mountain goat as it was believed that delivered to them a prayer faster reaches God.[27]

Most vividly totemic representations of the totem “kiyik” (mountain goats) traced in folklore materials. Kococash (epic hero) was a brave man – a hunter who had seen in my lifetime a lot of mountain goats. According to popular belief, you can not kill them more than a thousand.

1001 goat supposedly lets you know about this hunter, rising on its hind legs, or the hunter dreams, warning of the danger. But if you do not pay attention to it, it comprehends a punishment – he was going blind, deaf, tragically dies, or, as in the poem “Karagul bottom” shoots his only son, mistaking him for mountain goat[28] (Concept of ecological catastrophe)

 Mirlan Namatov

 

Literature :

Abaev N.V. Otrazhenie religiozno-mifologicheskih predstavlenij narodov Sajano-Altaja v skifo-sakskoj mifologii // Vestnik BGU. Ser. 16. Vyp.1 Ulan-Udje.

[1] Abaev V. Buddhism in Central Asian.

W.Abaev “Buddhism in Central Asia”

Аbaev V.I. Voprosy o prarodine i drevnejshih migracijah indoinranskih narodov // Drevnij vostok i antichnyj mir.- M., 1972

Amanjolov A. 1976

Antonov. Materialy po istoricheskoj leksike… S.57-58, 60

Anikin A.E. K tipologii nekotoryh jakutskih kosmonimov. – S.86-93. //Jazyk-mif-kul’tura narodov Sibiri: sbornik nauchnyh trudov. – Jakutsk: Jakutskij gosuniversitet, 1994. – 231 s. S.86-89.

Arhiv JaNC SO RAN, f.4, Oe.1, ed.hr.94.

Bykovskij S.N. K voprosu o totemizme //Iz istorii dokapitalisticheskih formacij. S.61-63

Dugarov. Ukaz. soch. S.81.

Gogolev „Yakuti“ S.20

Galdanova G. R. Dolamaistskie verovanija burjat. Novosibirsk, 1987. Hakassko-russkij slovar’ / Pod red. N.A. Baskakova. M., 1953.

Gamkrelidze, Ivanov. Ukaz. soch. Kn.II. S.518-519;

Ivanov V., 1991, с.21

Jergis. Ukaz. soch. S.126, 118.

Jergis G.U. Ocherki po jakutskomu fol’kloru. – M.: Nauka, 1974. – 396 s. S.134-135;

Ksenofontov. 1) Uraanghaj-sahalar. T. I, 2-ja kn. S.299, 186-187; 2) Uraanghaj-sahalar. T. I, 1-ja kn. S.343, 356, 358.

Ksenofontov G.V. Materialy po shamanstvu. L.21

Kochmar. Pisanicy Jakutii. S.243, 255.

Kilunovskaja M.E. Interpretacija obraza olenja v skifo-sibirskom iskusstve (po materialam petroglifov olennyh kamnej). – 103-107 s. // Skifo-sibirskij mir. Iskusstvo i ideologija. – Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1987. – 176 s. S.103

Kilunovskaja M.E. M1987.

Khertek L. Tomsk 2002

Köse Nerin „Kococas“ destani Ege üniversitesi

Kochmar N.N. Pisanicy Jakutii. Istorija i kul’tura Vostoka Azii. – Novosibirsk: Institut arheologii i jetnografii SO RAN, 1994. – 262 s. S.136.

Radlov V.V. Opyt slovarja tjurkskih narchij – SPb.: Tipografija Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk, 1899. – T.II. – 1814 stlb. Stlb. 998-999.

Romanova. «Ljudi solnechnyh luchej s zovod’jami za spinoj». S.133.

Rudenko. Ukaz. soch. S.136.

Simakov G.N. Sokolinaja ohota i kul’t hishhnyh ptic v srednej Azii: (ritual’nyj i prakticheskij aspekty). SPb1998. 320 s. (Ethographica Petropolitana, I) S.26

Vanshtejn. Ukaz. soch. S.42.

Zink, Michael: Der Mumien-Beweis. Europäer herrschten im alten China



[1] Kochmar N.N. Pisanicy Jakutii. Istorija i kul’tura Vostoka Azii. – Novosibirsk: Institut arheologii i jetnografii SO RAN, 1994. – 262 s. S.136.

[2] Arhiv JaNC SO RAN, f.4, Oe.1, ed.hr.94. Ksenofontov G.V. Materialy po shamanstvu. L.21.

[3] Jergis G.U. Ocherki po jakutskomu fol’kloru. – M.: Nauka, 1974. – 396 s. S.134-135; Anikin A.E. K tipologii nekotoryh jakutskih kosmonimov. – S.86-93. //Jazyk-mif-kul’tura narodov Sibiri: sbornik nauchnyh trudov. – Jakutsk: Jakutskij gosuniversitet, 1994. – 231 s. S.86-89.

[4]  Simakov G.N. Sokolinaja ohota i kul’t hishhnyh ptic v srednej Azii: (ritual’nyj i prakticheskij aspekty). SPb1998. 320 s. (Ethographica Petropolitana, I) S.26

[5] Gogolev „Yakuti“ S.20

[6]  Jergis. Ukaz. soch. S.126, 118.

[7]  Kilunovskaja M.E. Interpretacija obraza olenja v skifo-sibirskom iskusstve (po materialam petroglifov olennyh kamnej). – 103-107 s. // Skifo-sibirskij mir. Iskusstvo i ideologija. – Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1987. – 176 s. S.103

[8] Kilunovskaja M.E. M1987.

[9] Antonov. Materialy po istoricheskoj leksike… S.57-58, 60

[10] Romanova. «Ljudi solnechnyh luchej s zovod’jami za spinoj». S.133.

[11] Gamkrelidze, Ivanov. Ukaz. soch. Kn.II. S.518-519;

[12] Khertek L. Tomsk 2002

[13]Amanjolov A. 1976

[14] Bykovskij S.N. K voprosu o totemizme //Iz istorii dokapitalisticheskih formacij. S.61-63

[15] Radlov V.V. Opyt slovarja tjurkskih narchij – SPb.: Tipografija Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk, 1899. – T.II. – 1814 stlb. Stlb. 998-999.

[16]  Vanshtejn. Ukaz. soch. S.42.

[17] Rudenko. Ukaz. soch. S.136.

[18] Ksenofontov. 1) Uraanghaj-sahalar. T. I, 2-ja kn. S.299, 186-187; 2) Uraanghaj-sahalar. T. I, 1-ja kn. S.343, 356, 358.

[19]  Kochmar. Pisanicy Jakutii. S.243, 255.

[20] Dugarov. Ukaz. soch. S.81.

[21] Ivanov V., 1991, с.21

[22] W.Abaev “Buddhism in Central Asia”

[23] Аbaev V.I. Voprosy o prarodine i drevnejshih migracijah indoinranskih narodov // Drevnij vostok i antichnyj mir.- M., 1972

[24] Zink, Michael: Der Mumien-Beweis. Europäer herrschten im alten China

[25] Abaev N.V. Otrazhenie religiozno-mifologicheskih predstavlenij narodov Sajano-Altaja v skifo-sakskoj mifologii // Vestnik BGU. Ser. 16. Vyp.1 Ulan-Udje.

[26] Abaev V. Buddhism in Central Asian.

[27] Galdanova G. R. Dolamaistskie verovanija burjat. Novosibirsk, 1987. Hakassko-russkij slovar’ / Pod red. N.A. Baskakova. M., 1953.

[28] Nerin Köse „Kococas“ destani Ege üniversitesi

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